Sexually Transmitted Diseases

There are more than 250 diseases that are transmitted through sexual relations and are caused by various causes, including:

  • Germs, such as gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and syphilis
  • Viruses, such as herpes, condyloma, hepatitis and AIDS
  • Parasites, such as trichomoniasis and pediculosis pubis

Infection occurs through direct contact between the surface of the skin and the mucous membrane of the genital organs (syphilis, condyloma), or by contaminated secretions from the genital organs (gonorrhoea, chlamydia, herpes and AIDS).

Many women who are infected with STDs have no symptoms. Therefore, the period between exposure to the cause of the disease and the diagnosis is much longer compared to men, which increases the risk of disease transmission and spread in the genitals and pelvic infection. Consequently, women with STDs experience recurrent episodes of pain in the lower abdomen, disturbances in fertilization and ectopic pregnancy due to obstruction of the fallopian tubes because of inflammation (chlamydia, gonorrhea).

Genital warts

What are genital warts?

Genital warts are a common sexually transmitted infection. Almost all sexually active people will develop at least one type of HPV infection at some point in their lives, the virus that causes genital warts.

Genital warts can look like tiny, skin-colored bumps and have a cauliflower-like appearance. In many cases, warts are so small that they cannot be seen.

Certain strains of HPV can cause genital warts, while others can cause cancer. Vaccines can help protect against some strains of genital HPV.

What are the symptoms of genital warts?

Women may notice genital warts on the vulva, the vaginal wall, the area between the thighs and genitals, the anus, the anal canal, and the cervix. As for men, genital warts may appear on the tip or shaft of the penis, scrotum, or anus.

Signs and symptoms of genital warts include:

  • Small skin-colored, brown or pink warts in the genital area
  • Several blisters formations that look like cauliflower
  • itching in the genital area
  • Bleeding during sexual intercourse

You should see a doctor if you or your partner develop warts or blisters in the genital area.

What are the causes of genital warts?

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is what causes warts. There are more than 40 strains of HPV that affect the genitals.

Genital warts are usually spread through sexual contact. Warts do not need to be visible to transmit the infection from or to your sexual partner.

What are the risk factors of genital warts?

  • Unsafe sexual intercourse with multiple partners
  • Having another sexually transmitted infection
  • Having sex with a partner with an unknown sexual history
  • Being sexually active at a young age
  • Having a weakened immune system because of HIV or drugs given after organ transplant

What are the complications of HPV?

  • Cancer. Research have found that there is a strong correlation between cervical cancer and genital HPV infection. Some types of HPV may also contribute to cancers of the vulva, anus, penis, mouth, and throat.
  • Pregnancy complications. In rare cases, warts may enlarge during pregnancy; This makes it difficult to urinate. Warts on the vaginal wall may prevent vaginal tissue from stretching during childbirth and large warts on the vulva or vagina may bleed when stretched during childbirth.

How to diagnose genital warts?

Genital warts are usually diagnosed by their appearance. Sometimes, a biopsy may be necessary.

  • Pap test. It is important for women to have regular pelvic exams and testing for cervical cancer, which can help detect changes in the vagina and cervix caused by a genital warts or early signs of cervical cancer.
  • HPV test. This test is generally done for women 30 or older. The test is not helpful for younger women, because they usually recover from HPV infection without treatment.

What are the treatment options for genital warts?

if you have itching, burning sensation, and pain, or if you are concerned about the infection spreading, your doctor can help you treat the infection, either with medications or surgery.

  • Medications. These include topical creams for genital warts that can be applied directly to your skin.
  • Surgery. You may need surgery to remove large warts, or warts that do not respond to medication. Surgical procedures include:
  •  Cryotherapy. Cooling with liquid nitrogen works by causing blisters to form around warts. When your skin heals, the lesions fade away, allowing new skin to appear. You may need to repeat the treatment to get a good result.
  • Electrocautery. This procedure uses an electric device to burn off warts. You may feel some pain and swelling after the procedure.
  • Surgical excision. Your doctor may use surgical tools to cut off warts. You will need local or general anesthesia for this treatment, and you may feel pain afterward.
  • Laser treatments. This approach, which uses an intense beam of light, can be is usually reserved for warts that are numerous and difficult to treat.
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