Hysteroscopy is a procedure that allows the doctor to look inside the uterus to diagnose and treat the causes of abnormal bleeding and other conditions. Hysteroscopy is performed using a hysteroscope, which is a thin, lighted tube inserted into the vagina to examine the cervix and inside the uterus. Hysteroscopy can be either diagnostic or therapeutic.
Diagnostic hysteroscopy is used to diagnose uterine problems. It is also used to confirm the results of other tests, such as HSG hysteroscopy; an X-ray dye test used to check the uterus and fallopian tubes. Moreover, diagnostic hysteroscopy can be used with other procedures, such as laparoscopy, or before the dilation and curettage (D&C) procedure. In the laparoscopy process, the doctor will insert an endoscope into the abdomen through an incision made through or below the navel to see the outside of the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.
Surgical hysteroscopy is used to correct an abnormal condition discovered during diagnostic hysteroscopy, and surgical hysteroscopy can be performed at the same time as the diagnosis, avoiding the need for a second surgery. During surgical hysteroscopy, small tools used to correct the condition are inserted through a hysteroscope.
Uses of hysteroscope
The most common use of hysteroscopy is to find the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. Abnormal bleeding can mean that a woman’s menstrual periods are heavier or longer than usual or occur less or more than usual, while bleeding between menstrual periods is also considered abnormal.
Hysteroscopy is also used in the following cases:
- Removal of adhesions that may occur due to infection or previous surgery, also called Sherman’s syndrome; They are scar tissues that form inside the uterus and cause changes in menstrual flow as well as infertility.
- Diagnosing the cause of recurrent miscarriage when a woman has more than two consecutive miscarriages.
- Determining the location of the intrauterine device (IUD).
- Conducting permanent sterilization; Where a hysteroscope is used to place small grafts in the fallopian tube to prevent pregnancy.
How is hysteroscopy done?
Before surgery, your doctor may prescribe a sedative to help you relax, and then you will be prepared for anesthesia.
After that, the steps of the hysteroscope are as follows:
- The cervix is expanded
- The doctor inserts the hysteroscope through the vagina and cervix to the uterus
- After that, the doctor pumps carbon dioxide or solution to widen the uterus and get rid of any adhesions.
The duration of this procedure generally ranges from five minutes to approximately an hour, depending on whether hysteroscopy is used for diagnosis or treatment.
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